Introduction to General Scientific Lexis (GSL)

Vocabulary work

1. Take a close look at the language of research and discovery which can be effectively used in your professional activity. Pay attention to how the key words are explained and memorise them.

Science and scientists Scienceis the study of the nature and behaviour of natural things and knowledge obtained about them Introduction to General Scientific Lexis (GSL). Scientificdescribes words that relate to science. A scientistis someone who works in science. obtain – получать
Technology and technologists Technologydescribes scientific knowledge applied for practical purposes. Technologicaldescribes things relating to technology. Technologistsare researchers who work in a particular area of technology. apply – использовать, прилагать particular – особый, отдельный technology – техника Introduction to General Scientific Lexis (GSL), разработка
Innovation Innovationis the act of thinking of new ideas, developments, and improvements. These are innovationsand the people innovatingthem are innovators. The related adjective is innovative. The first, experimental, versions of a new technological idea are prototypes(e.g. a prototype version). innovation –ново­введение, изобретение development – развитие, совер Introduction to General Scientific Lexis (GSL)­шенствование, разработка prototype – макет, опытнейший эталон
Inventors Inventionor inventivenessis the ability to design new machines, devices, or products. An inventionis a new machine, device, or product. People who invent things are inventors. The related adjective is inventive. invent – изобретать design (v) – проек­тировать; предназ­начать
Researchers People trying Introduction to General Scientific Lexis (GSL) to find facts about something, studyit or do researchin it, into it, or on it. A piece of research may be referred to as a studyor a research study. These terms also refer to the published results of the research. Scientific research often takes place in laboratories, or labs Introduction to General Scientific Lexis (GSL). There are also research laboratories or research labs. People doing research are researchers. Research as a noun is usually but not always an uncountable noun. research (n) – ис­следование, поиск refer (to) – упоми-нать; относиться (к); ссылаться (на) to be referred to as – называться uncountable noun – неисчисляемое существительное
Experimentation Experimentsare Introduction to General Scientific Lexis (GSL) scientific tests that are carried out, conducted, done, or performedto see what happens to something in particular conditions. A field experimentis one done in real surroundings and not in a laboratory. A thought experimentis done by thinking about a problem, rather than experimenting on it. Doing experiments is Introduction to General Scientific Lexis (GSL) experimentation, the people who do them are experimenters. carry out – проводить condition – условие surroundings – об­становка, среда, окружение rather than – а не
Experimental approaches A table used for conducting experiments is a laboratory bench. A test tubeis a small tube-shaped container used in experiments. Experiments may be conducted on Introduction to General Scientific Lexis (GSL) samplesor specimens. The validity, or reality, of experimental results is tested by repeating the experiments to see if the results obtained are the same. approach (n) – подход, способ sample – эталон, проба specimen – эталон, пробный экземпляр validity – достовер-ность, правиль-ность, обоснован-ность obtain – получить
Observation and hypothesis A Introduction to General Scientific Lexis (GSL) phenomenonis something that is seen to occur or exist: it is observed. Information obtained by making observationand making measurementsof them is data. Datais collectedor gathered. It is then processedand analysed in a process of analysis. Unprocessed, unanalysed data is raw data. Scientists look for meaning in data: they interpret it Introduction to General Scientific Lexis (GSL) in order to reach conclusions or to conclude things. Data and other information form the evidence for these conclusions. The form datacan be used as a singular or plural. Sometimes datumis used for the singular. An experiment may be done to test a hypothesis: to see whether a suggested explanation Introduction to General Scientific Lexis (GSL) for something is true. Approaching scientific problems by hypothesizingabout them and testing these hypotheses by observation and experimentationis often described as being empirical. occur – происхо-дить, случаться observe – наблю-дать process (v) – обра-батывать raw – сырой, необработанный reach a conclusion– сделать вывод evidence – признак, данные; доказа-тельство approach Introduction to General Scientific Lexis (GSL) a prob-lem– решать задачку
Discoveries and breakthroughs The discovererof something is the person who finds it or becomes aware of it for the first time by discovering itor by making a discovery. A discovery may be described as a breakthrough. People may say that it is ground-breakingor that Introduction to General Scientific Lexis (GSL) it breaks new ground. Scientists who are the first to do work in a principal area are pioneers. They are said to pioneerparticular developments or do pioneering workin a particular area. breakthrough – прорыв; принципиальное научное открытие; техническое дос­тижение ground-breaking – переломный pioneer (v) – вы­полнять в первый раз Introduction to General Scientific Lexis (GSL)
Theory and theorists A theoryis an idea or set of ideas designed to explain something. The related adjective is theoretical. People who produce and work on theories are theoristsor theoreticians. A modelof a phenomenon, system, or process is a theoretical description of it, designed to aid understanding of how it Introduction to General Scientific Lexis (GSL) works. Theory is also used as an uncountable noun to talk about the theories of a particular area as a whole. Scientists modelphenomena, systems, and processes, for example on a computer. set (n) – набор; набор; ряд, серия aid (v) – помогать as a whole – в целом
Laws of science A Introduction to General Scientific Lexis (GSL) statement in mathematics or logic that is the product of reasoning is a theorem. The explanation of this reasoning is the theorem’s proof, often in the form of a series of equations. A formulais a series of mathematical, chemical, or other symbols that express a scientific rule Introduction to General Scientific Lexis (GSL). General statements that are confirmed by observations are principles and laws. Theorems, principles, and laws are often preceded by the name of the person who first formulated them, e.g. the Copernican principle. statement – утвер­ждение, формули­ровка reasoning – рассуждение equation – уравнение confirm – подтвер­ждать
Reasoning If you Introduction to General Scientific Lexis (GSL) deduceor infersomething, you can come to the conclusion that it is true. Deductionor inferencecan refer to a conclusion and to the process of reaching it. Reasoninglike this is deductive in its logic and may be described as logical. deduce – выводить (формулу) infer – заключать, иметь в виду inference – вывод, заключение
Presenting findings Introduction to General Scientific Lexis (GSL) Scientists usually publishtheir resultsor findingsin articlesor papersin scientific journals. Articles and papers are submittedto journals for assessment before publication. Scientists may give presentations of their work at conferencesor congresses: gatherings of scientists who meet to discuss their work. These and other types of scientific gatherings are referred Introduction to General Scientific Lexis (GSL) to as meetings. If someone delivers, gives or presents a paperat a meeting such as this, they make an oral presentation. A scientist presents findingsto a conference on something, delivers a paper at a meeting, or gives a paper on something at an international congress. (from Key Words Introduction to General Scientific Lexis (GSL) in Science and Technology by Bell Mascull) findings – резуль-таты paper – доклад, статья submit – пред-ставлять assessment – оценка presentation – из­ложение, предста­вление, выступ-ление meeting – заседа-ние, собрание, встреча deliver a paper – делать доклад